|Ruby R Line: Its potential accessed by the optical pumping effect -- Part II|
This Part 2 Continues presently as a follow on of the historic topic of the optical pumping effect we have examined in Part 1. - The original historical discovery of the effect at CNRS in Paris, long before the lasers.
We shall examine presently however, the potential of the Ruby R Line once accessed by the optical pumping: And at a time however now, no longer that far long preceding the lasers-as in Part 1. And briefly, a new effect of special significance shall manifest itself, that of which little is known, hence told here in what follows presently
On Crystalline Ruby
The Crystalline Ruby is made up of a Sapphire crystal, doped with Chromium however, and that in which Chromium enters the crystal doubly ionized. And heavier doping the crystal, the Ruby, takes on a darker color.
And yet further:
It had been known for sometimes now, and of special significance for us here:
Again the credit goes to Alfred Kastler at CNRS in Paris, And at a time he had been considering for sometime: To investigate the potential of Ruby R Lines once accessed by his Pompage Optic, the optical pumping. Yet knowing full well however, that this entire technology needed solely existed at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill.
The 'Story' now further continues. The time and the date of the events due to occur, as it proved, now approached the June-July time frame the year 1960:
Things had moved fast. And as it proved, within month time of this same time frame: the timing would approach the event that initiated the very beginning of the laser, the historic 12 December 1960 event.
The Story now yet continues at the Bell Laboratories, in June-July time frame the Year 1960
Yet, weeks and time had passed: Anticipating by the optical pumping to induce the crystalline Ruby into its now inverted energy state. And yet and yet as it proved, the 'Efficiency', in inducing the Ruby R Line into its inverted energy state: Turned out to be as it seemed, to be 'negligibly small'. And in no way did it seem possible, to invert the Ruby R Line at a sufficient number-density by the pumping effect needed drive it into its self-sustained oscillation mode in the red region of the spectrum as had been anticipated and planned for.
Yet now, in Lasers:
In Lasers, the history of events is always an exciting story, and often taking place itself within an already ongoing exciting story in itself.
Here is the Story:
I think it was early in July, I had a telephone call from Willis Lamb at Stanford University in Palo Alto (I knew Willis closely, as I shall explain). Telling me that Ted Maiman at Hughes Aircraft Company in Malibu: Had just then driven the Ruby R Line, into its Oscillation Mode in the red region of spectrum.
And that however, and as he had learned, the Oscillation "Self-terminated itself", emanating an intense short duration laser pulse of a fraction of a millisecond pulse duration.
And that as the news had it and we learned shortly thereafter: He had used a specially designed flash lamp emitting an intense short duration light pulse at a very high intensity for his optical pumping effect. Far different from what was being used at the time for optical pumping at Bell Laboratories. An exciting story told here shortly below.
And on Ted Maiman: He had performed his Doctoral thesis research at Stanford University, with Willis overseeing his thesis research. And that further, he had joined Hughes in Malibu, and within a number of months time following his graduation. And then this Above
It is remarkable that, Ted Maiman did all of this above in just a few moths time since he joined Hughes in Malibu, CA. And with little funds available to him at Hughes, as we now know.
Here is now this exciting Story, told here for the first Time
And, there shall be a concluding Note - Which shall conclude this Part 2
We do not know how and in which way he chose a flash lamp of a short duration for his optical pumping. Which has special spectral properties of a very short duration, which extends over an exceptionally broad bandwidth into the deep 'Ultraviolet in near UV'. And far different from the then available light sources in the red region of spectrum being used for the pumping effect ongoing at the Bell laboratory at the time.
We shall however keep in mind, the necessity for charging and discharging the capacitor bank, which takes a period of time in tens of minutes, and limiting its potential use to where a single, high intensity laser light pulse of a short duration shall suffice.
A Concluding Note, and Briefly: